Dr. Arthur Skeffington, known as the “Father of behavioral Optometry”, developed the 4 circles model for visual perception. This model illustrates key areas for vision specialist to better understand the vision system and its capacity. Vision therapists for instance use the model to determine where the patient is in their vision development and diagnosis. The following diagram illustrates Skeffington’s circles,

Dr. Harold Solan, a developmental optometrist stated, “How you conceptualize the problem will determine your approach to treatment.” This statement is relevant concerning both the patient receiving vision therapy and the vision specialist providing it. Patients come into therapy hoping to develop specific aspects of their vision, but soon learn that the visual system encapsulates many different aspects. Many patients are surprised to know the role physical therapy plays in improving the visual system. Patients come into therapy either with tension in muscles or their muscles are supper relaxed which affects their balance and dexterity. Physical therapy helps to alleviate these unfavorable conditions in order for the visual system to function properly during therapy. I personally was surprised to find how much we dedicate to vestibular therapy which is necessary for balance. Furthermore, we perform a variety of visual tasks and activities that directly affects visual, proprioception, and spatial awareness. From these fundamental improvements, vision treatment can be made easier for patients. Visualization must be conceptualized as a whole systems development. The eyes and their surrounding muscles are connected to the entire body. This approach to vision therapy diagrammed by Dr. Skeffington is a vital approach to treatment and understanding of the visual system as related to the health and well-being of the patient

-Odis Garret, Therapist